Infrastructure consists of major construction and
facilities that once built, last for many years.
In many cases, the emissions caused either directly or
indirectly by the facility are ˇ§locked inˇ¨ once the
infrastructure begins operation, and it may be difficult to
reduce its emissions later without a major overhaul.
Therefore it is important to plan for transition to a
low-emission infrastructure in the future, whether in transport
infrastructure (roads, rail, tunnels, bridges, sea and water
ports), energy infrastructure (power plants, fuel depots and
distribution networks), industrial infrastructure (factories
with varying energy footprints), or building infrastructure
(raising the energy performance of commercial and residential
development requires that urban planning be no longer undertaken
in isolation but should be integrated with energy, transport and
quality of life. (22)
Besides long-range planning, the immediate urban
environment can benefit from more urban greening and natural
urban design must comprise a good-quality ˇ§green space infrastructureˇ¨, whether public park, green spaces or
ˇ§no-emissionˇ¨ zones that encourage walking and provide
higher air quality outdoors for public enjoyment.
In the congested urban areas, improvements in pedestrian
walkways and the creation of more pedestrian zones is an urgent
need that should be accorded higher priority.